Friday, 10 February 2017


Wrocław (German: Breslau or Brassel, Czech: Vratislav, Hungarian: Boroszló) - a city with county rights in south-western Poland, the seat of the province of Lower Silesia and the county of Wroclaw. Situated on the Odra river and its four tributaries. It is the historical capital of Lower Silesia, as well as the whole of Silesia.

It is the fourth most population city in Poland - 637 075 residents, fifth in terms of area - 292.82 square kilometres.

The former capital of the Duchy of Wroclaw, the seat of the Prussian Silesia province and regency Wroclaw. Since 28 June 1946 the capital of the province of Wroclaw. From 1 January 1999 the capital of the province of Lower Silesia.

Wroclaw is one of the oldest Polish cities in terms of location on the city rights. In ancient times near Wroclaw there was a town called Budorigum. It has been mapped on antique map of Claudius Ptolemy in the years 142-147 AD. The fact that this town was near Wroclaw, announces Lexicon Universal, and this is due to the position of other identified village of Silesia. In Wroclaw, they crossed two major trade routes - Via Regia and Amber Road. The city belonged to the Hanseatic League.

The town was first mentioned explicitly in the year 1000 in connection with the establishment (during the Congress of Gniezno) bishopric (one of four in the then Polish). Settlements in these areas already existed, however, from the sixth century, when the Slavic tribe Slezan settled on the Oder and erected on the Cathedral Island castle, which Vratislav I strengthened in the tenth century. Since the end of the tenth century Wroclaw was under the rule of the Piast and was one of the main headquarters of the kingdom. In medieval Chronicle Polish Galla Anonim written in the years 1112-1116 Wroclaw next to Krakow and Sandomierz has been credited to one of the three major capitals of the Polish Kingdom.

In the years 1031-1032 exploded reaction pagan and was destroyed cathedral in Wroclaw, and in its place built a pagan temple. Other sources of the date of the pagan reaction indicate the years 1034-1038.

In the twelfth century castle was erected on the Cathedral Island and the town has gained the status of castellany. Written in Latin, medieval document of Henry I the Bearded of 1,214 years mentions as Castellan Wroclaw Sobiesława in the section "Sobeslao castellano de Wratislauia".
In April 1241, fearing the Mongol invasion, the city was abandoned by the inhabitants, and then burned for strategic reasons. Castle Wroclaw, in which he defended Henry II Pobożny, remained impregnable thanks to the wonderful phenomenon, which appeared in the sky, causing the withdrawal of the Mongol siege. The tradition, which passed, among others, Jan Dlugosz, took that as a result of the prayers of the prior Wroclaw Dominican Ceslaus, and later blessed patron of the city. After rebuilding from the ruins, in December 1261 years the town was on the Magdeburg law. The first mayor was chosen Godinusa Stillevogta (his son Gedko later became the first mayor of Krakow).

In 1335 after the death of Henry VI Dobry, after 350 years of domination in Wroclaw princes and Polish kings, the town passed under the rule of the kings of Bohemia.
After the death of Louis II Jagiełło in 1526 Wroclaw, together with the Kingdom of Bohemia it was incorporated into the Habsburg monarchy.

In the mid-seventeenth century, Polish-German language boundary was near Wroclaw, including the city to the territory of the dominance of the Polish language.

In 1741 during the Silesian Wars the city, along with most of Silesia was conquered by King Frederick II and became part of Prussia, and therefore since 1741 the official name of the city was, Royal Capital and residential city of Wrocław (Ger. Haupt- und Königliche Residenzstadt Breslau).
From December 6, 1806 Wroclaw was besieged by Napoleon's army under General Dominique Vandamme and after a month siege, was captured on Jan. 5. The city became a point of organizational Polish legions, whose number is set to 8400 recruits. In 1807 the French ordered the demolition of the fortifications surrounding the city, which was benefited from Wroclaw, because bastions and walls were limited before the spatial development of the city. Under the rule of France Wrocław he remained until 1807 when Napoleon signed Tilsit Peace in 07.09.1807 r. And the city returned again under the rule of Prussia. Thanks to the efforts aide Jerome Bonaparte - Count Philip de Anakin Prussia permitted the free passage of Napoleon's army through the territory of Silesia. Since 1809. King of Prussia ordered the secularization of church property (including the university), and received donated goods for cultural purposes or for their courtiers for example Krobielowice Palace.

In the years 1890-1918 in Wroclaw created an extensive system of fortifications - TOR. Fortress Wroclaw.

In 1933, the year in Wroclaw was established KZ Dürrgoy - One of the first concentration camps of the Third Reich weights.

During World War II Wroclaw was a branch of the concentration camp Gross-Rosen. In 1941 Wroclaw was established Polish underground organization called Olympus. August 25, 1944 r., The city was announced argue (Ger. Festung Breslau), and received an order to defend themselves to the last man. January 19, 1945, on the orders of Gauleiter of Silesia, Karl Hanke, been forced evacuation on foot most of the rest in the civilian population. February 13, the Red Army began the siege of Wroclaw. March 8 command of Festung Breslau took Hermann Niehoff, and his predecessor, Hans von Ahlfen, left the city by plane two days later. March 16 forced laborers began demolition of houses and construction of the airport at the point of the current Grunwaldzki Square. On the night of 1/2 April 750 Soviet aircraft it started indiscriminate bombing of Wroclaw. The city were discharged demolition and incendiary bombs. Wroclaw surrendered until May 6, four days after Berlin. In the evening, in a villa Colonia at today's ul. Rapacki 14, gen. Hermann Niehoff and gen. Vladimir Głuzdowski signed the capitulation of Wroclaw. As a result of fighting between the Red Army and the Wehrmacht either damaged or destroyed about 70% of the city's buildings.
August 2, 1945 r. At the Potsdam Conference it was decided to turn over Poland Silesia and Wroclaw, the German population, which did not leave the city before the siege of Wroclaw, displaced to the Soviet occupation zone in Germany. To Wroclaw began to pour in the Polish population, mainly from the central Polish and Wielkopolska and displaced residents of the eastern borderlands of pre-war Polish, mostly from Lviv and the surrounding area, and the Vilnius region.

In 1948 Wroclaw was a great Exhibition of the Regained Territories (WZO), which was visited by over 1.5 million people and the World Congress of Intellectuals for Peace.

During martial law in 1982 in Wroclaw they created anti-conspiratorial organizations - Fighting Solidarity and Orange Alternative.

Wroclaw was one of four Polish cities where matches were played EURO 2012.

In 2016 Wroclaw was the European Capital of Culture.

In Wroclaw, despite the devastation of war it has preserved many buildings in original condition restored or rebuilt after the war. To stand out include two town halls in the Market Square - the Gothic Old Town Hall, and New Town Hall in the style of historicism; Gothic churches Metropolitan Cathedral of St. John the Baptist Cathedral Island, Cathedral Catholic Church. St. Vincent. and St. Jacob cathedral, St. Mary Magdalene Basilica, St. Elizabeth Basilica, Collegiate St. Cross, St. Stanislaus, St. Dorothy and St.. Wenceslas church. Baroque main buildings of the University of Wroclaw with Aula Leopoldina; the neo-Gothic building of the Main Railway Station; modernist Centennial Hall, the Opera Wroclaw edifice, Market Hall, Barasch Brothers' Department Store, Department Store "Renoma", department store "Chameleon" designed by Erich Mendelsohn, the buildings of the exhibition "Living and working place" (1929, including house design by Hans Scharoun), buildings Brewery Piast, Spätgenów Palace, the Palace of Schaffgotsch, Palace Ballestrem, Landeshaus, Post Office and water towers.

In addition, the city survived more than eight thousand historic buildings representing historical styles from the nineteenth and early twentieth century, which local authorities are trying to under special revitalization programs. It is the largest of this type of concentration of historic buildings in Poland and one of the largest in Europe. Townhouses those present styles ranging from Baroque through Classicism, Historicism, Art Nouveau up to modernism. Many apartment buildings presents high values of architectural and aesthetic. In some cases, these are preserved all the streets historicist architecture as even Miernicza street and Priest Stanislaw Staszic Palace on the Nadodrze estate. At Wroclaw Tarnogaj preserved residential houses at  Kamieniecka street, which is sometimes called Wroclaw "Golden Lane".

The building of the West Bank on the corner of Market Square and Salt place only in Wroclaw as paternoster, it is elevator without doors, which travels at a constant speed, without stopping on each floor. 

Wroclaw city hall is one of the oldest town halls in Poland. On the high tower is the oldest in Poland and the oldest bell clock, from 1368 clock tower. In the basement of the building is the oldest (the XIV century) restaurant in Europe - Cellar Świdnicka.

Same of monuments:

  • Centennial Hall (formerly the People's Hall) - the object inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site, declared a historical monument

  • Cathedral Island (formerly a separate island) - the oldest, historic part of Wroclaw inhabited since at least the ninth century, owes its development to its location, because it was the most convenient point of crossing the Oder.


  • Old Town - the oldest and most interesting part of the left bank of Wroclaw, drawn from a thirteenth-century town tracking, among others Streets Cloth Rzeźnicza, Kuźnicza, Oławska, dog kennels, Szewska, University, Kotlarska, Oder, Łaciarska, Veit Stoss, Kurzy Market, Białoskórnicza.

  • Square with the Old Town Hall, New Town Hall, and Świdnicka Cellar Brewery Spiż - one of the largest markets in Europe, the Old Town with dimensions of 205 to 175 m [56]. The surrounding buildings represent the styles of different eras. 

  • Square Salt - the former medieval market square, his corner in contact with the Market. Probable date of establishment of the end of the thirteenth century.

  • Nowy Targ - one of the three historic squares fair Wroclaw, was probably already about 1214

  • Bishop Square Nankiera.

  • Świdnicka street - with a total length of approx. 1050 meters. It is one of the main streets of Wroclaw

  • Panorama Racławicka

  • Municipal Stadium - one of the arenas of Euro 2012

  • Wroclaw Multimedia Fountain

  • Royal Palace (Palace of Spätgenów)
  • Zoo (founded in 1865), 

  • Botanical Garden - appointed in 1811 at the Cathedral Island. The area covers 7.4 hectares (0.33 ha under glass), is home to around 7.5 thousand species of plants.

  • Szczytnicki Park with Japanese Garden - covers an area of ​​about 100 hectares which makes it one

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